3.1 Written Communication

  • Written communication has great significance in today’s business world.
  • It is an innovative activity of the mind. Effective written communication is essential for preparing worthy promotional materials for business development.
  • Speech came before writing.
  • But writing is more unique and formal than speech.
  • Effective writing involves careful choice of words, their organization in correct order in sentences formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences.
  • Also, writing is more valid and reliable than speech. But while speech is spontaneous, writing causes delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate.

3.2 Fundamentals of good writing

  • Clarity- Purpose, thought
  •  Example presented is appropriate
  • Not too descriptive.
  • Not contradicting a point you made earlier.
  •  Eliminate redundancy.
  •  Avoid Over-generalization.
  • Punch up the argument.
  • Be more specific and concrete–perhaps give an example.
  • Provide proof & Evidence
  • Verb tense.
  •  Avoid unclear antecedents. Example: “UDF and BJP clashed over their illicit use of government funds.”
  •  Ensure smooth transition(Write in coherent paragraphs)
  • Eliminate inappropriate metaphors
  • Avoid colloquial words
  • No awkward sentence construction.
  • No  grammatical errors-
  • Avoid Cliché or overwrought prose.
  •  Not Too wordy
  • Avoid Run-on sentence–break long sentence into two or more sentences.
  • Use active voice
  • No sentence fragment
  • No Punctuation error
  • Possessives–this either requires an apostrophe or the apostrophe should be deleted.
  • Capitalization–it is either needed or should be deleted.
  •  Hyphenate the word.
  • Avoid too many direct quotations.

3.3 Principles of Effective Writing

  • Brevity
  • Clarity
  • Honesty
  • Emphasis
  • Accomplish purpose of communication
  • Passion & Control
  • Reading
  • Revision
  • Sophistication & simplicity
  • Sound & Rhythm


1.Select words that the reader  understands As far as  possible  use familiar everyday words.
“ find out ”   instead  of       “ ascertain ”
“ try ”           instead  of       “ endeavour ”
“ end ”         instead  of       “ terminate ”
“ show ”      instead  of        “ demonstrate ”
2.Prefer  short  word  to  long  word
Eg.   Use     They  agreed   to  quit   business   instead  of They  acceded  to the proposition  to  terminate  business.
3. Use technical words (jargon) with caution
Eg.  Use stroke   instead  of  cerebral  vascular  accident
4. Avoid  frequent  use  of  clichés
Cliché  is  a  faded  word  or  phrase  which  has  lost  its effectiveness  because  of  overuse.   Clichés are  not  necessarily  unsuitable  or  wrong  but  their  frequent  use  may  tire  the  discriminating  reader.
Avoid  clichés  such  as  Food for thought,   crowning glory,   part and  parcel, sum  and  substance,   the vast  majority, burning  question,   spare  no  efforts,   desperate need,
discuss threadbare,   teeming  millions,   untiring  efforts,  day in and day out,   heart  and  soul,  leave  no stone  unturned,  etc.  etc.
5. Use concrete  (specific) words  instead  of   abstract  words
Eg.      22%  profit     instead  of      a  sizeable  profit
           99.4%  pure   instead  of      very  pure
6.Prefer  active  to  passive  voice
Eg.  The  auditor  inspected  the  books   instead  of   The  books  were  inspected by  the  auditor
7.Select  words  for  precise  communication
Understand  the  difference  in  the  shades  of  meaning  conveyed  by  different  words    eg   between   weary   tired exhausted  or  between suggest tell inform
8.Bring  life to the writing by using  strong   vigorous words
Eg.   Use  “boom”    Instead  of   “period  of  business  prosperity”
9.  Use  correct  idiom
Eg.     in  search  of   instead  of  in   search  for
comply  with   instead  of  comply  to
10.Avoid  sexist  words
As far as possible, avoid use of words that suggest male dominance.
Eg.   use  of  the  masculine pronouns  ‘he’, ‘his’, ‘him’  and  words  such  as  chairman, salesman, businessman  etc.
        Use  of  masculine  pronouns  can  be  avoided  by  any of the  three  methods
        Method  1    Changing  the sentence  construction as  shown  below
        “If  a customer  pays promptly, he  is  placed on our  preferred  list” can be rewritten as     “A  customer  who  pays  promptly  is  placed   on  our  preferred  list.”
Method  2   Making  the  reference  plural and  using  the  unsexist  plural pronouns   ‘they’, ‘them’ or ‘their’.   Eg.  “If  customers  pay  promptly  they  are placed  on  our  preferred  list”
        Method  3     Substituting  neutral  expressions  Eg.  “If  a  customer  pays  promptly he/she  is   placed  on  our  preferred  list”
Length  of  a  sentence  is  related  to  sentence  difficulty.  The  longer  a  sentence  the  harder  it  is  to  understand  it.  Writing  shorter  sentences  involves  two  techniques:
  • Limiting  sentence  content
        Mentally  select  the  thought  units  and  make  separate  sentences  out  of  most
                 of  them.
  • Economizing  on  words
This  can  be  done  by  avoiding  the  use  of  cluttering  phrases
Eg.  Using   if    instead  of    in  the  event of or       even  though   instead  of    in  spite  of  the  fact  that
  • Avoiding  roundabout  construction
Eg.   Using   The department budget   decreases each year Instead  of  The department budget  can  be observed to be decreasing each year
Short sentences give more emphasis than long sentences
All  parts of  a  sentence  must  combine to form  one  clear  thought.
Build  the  paragraph  around  a  single  topic  or  idea
 Keep  the  paragraph  short – an average of 8 or 9 lines
Build  the  paragraph  around  a  single  topic  or  idea
 Make  effective  use  of  topic  sentences  –  these  are  sentences  that  expresses  the main idea  in  the  paragraph

3.5 Writing Process

Every writer follows his or her own writing process. Often the process is a routine that comes naturally and is not a step-by-step guide to which writers refer. Being conscious of your own writing process is especially helpful when you find yourself struggling with a particularly tricky piece. Here are five steps towards creating or identifying your personal writing process.
1. Prewriting
You’re ready to start writing. So why has that blank page been staring back at you for the past hour? Prewriting identifies everything you need to do before you sit down to start your rough draft.
  • Find Your Idea
Ideas are all around you. You might draw inspiration from a routine, an everyday situation or a childhood memory. Alternatively, keep a notebook specifically devoted to catching your ideas as they come to you. Your own imagination is the only limit to finding your source of inspiration.
  • Build On Your Idea
Two of the most popular methods of fleshing out your idea are free writing and brainstorming. Free writing means writing every idea that comes into your head. Do not stop to edit your mistakes, just let the ideas flow. Or, try brainstorming. If you’re on a computer, try a manual process first to help you visualize your narrative: write your idea in the center of the page and work outwards in all of the different directions you can take your story.
  • Plan and Structure
Piecing the puzzle together comes next. It’s time to sort through your ideas and choose which ones you will use to form your story. Make sure you keep your notes even after your book is published – there may be the seeds for your next story as well.
2. Writing
Now you have your plan and you’re ready to start writing. Remember, this is your first rough draft. Forget about word count and grammar. Don’t worry if you stray off topic in places; even the greatest writers produce multiple drafts before they produce their finished manuscript. Think of this stage as a free writing exercise, just with more direction. Identify the best time and location to write and eliminate potential distractions. Make writing a regular part of your day.
3. Revision
Your story can change a great deal during this stage. When revising their work, many writers naturally adopt the A.R.R.R. approach:
Add: The average novel has between 60,000 and 100,000 words. Does your book have enough words to be considered a novel? Have you given your readers all the information they need to make sense of your story? If not, go back to your notebook that you kept for additional scenes and any additional details.
Rearrange: Consider the flow, pacing and sequencing of your story. Would the plot be better served if some of the events occur in a different order?
Remove: After making additions to your story, how is your word count now? Are your readers experiencing information overload? You may need to eliminate passages that don’t quite fit.
Replace: The most effective way to revise your work is to ask for a second opinion. Do you need more vivid details to help clarify your work? Is one scene contradicting another? Ask friends or fellow writers to take a look and give you feedback, and if something isn’t working rewrite it and replace it.
4. Editing
You have overhauled your story. It’s time to fine tune your manuscript line by line. Check for repetition, clarity, grammar, spelling and punctuation. Editing is an extremely detailed process and its best when performed by a professional. You can hire your own editor or utilized the editing services available through LifeRich Publishing. Nobody wants to read a book that is full of mistakes, and they certainly won’t buy a book that is riddled with them.
5. Publishing
You now have a completed manuscript ready to publish.