3.1 Written Communication
- Written communication has great significance in today’s business world.
- It is an innovative activity of the mind. Effective written communication is essential for preparing worthy promotional materials for business development.
- Speech came before writing.
- But writing is more unique and formal than speech.
- Effective writing involves careful choice of words, their organization in correct order in sentences formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences.
- Also, writing is more valid and reliable than speech. But while speech is spontaneous, writing causes delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate.
3.2 Fundamentals of good writing
- Clarity- Purpose, thought
- Example presented is appropriate
- Not too descriptive.
- Not contradicting a point you made earlier.
- Eliminate redundancy.
- Avoid Over-generalization.
- Punch up the argument.
- Be more specific and concrete–perhaps give an example.
- Provide proof & Evidence
- Verb tense.
- Avoid unclear antecedents. Example: “UDF and BJP clashed over their illicit use of government funds.”
- Ensure smooth transition(Write in coherent paragraphs)
- Eliminate inappropriate metaphors
- Avoid colloquial words
- No awkward sentence construction.
- No grammatical errors-
- Avoid Cliché or overwrought prose.
- Not Too wordy
- Avoid Run-on sentence–break long sentence into two or more sentences.
- Use active voice
- No sentence fragment
- No Punctuation error
- Possessives–this either requires an apostrophe or the apostrophe should be deleted.
- Capitalization–it is either needed or should be deleted.
- Hyphenate the word.
- Avoid too many direct quotations.
3.3 Principles of Effective Writing
- Accomplish purpose of communication
- Passion & Control
- Sophistication & simplicity
- Sound & Rhythm
3.4 TECHNIQUES OF BUSINESS WRITING
A.CHOICE OF WORDS
1.Select words that the reader understands As far as possible use familiar everyday words.
“ find out ” instead of “ ascertain ”
“ try ” instead of “ endeavour ”
“ end ” instead of “ terminate ”
“ show ” instead of “ demonstrate ”
2.Prefer short word to long word
Eg. Use They agreed to quit business instead of They acceded to the proposition to terminate business.
3. Use technical words (jargon) with caution
Eg. Use stroke instead of cerebral vascular accident
4. Avoid frequent use of clichés
Cliché is a faded word or phrase which has lost its effectiveness because of overuse. Clichés are not necessarily unsuitable or wrong but their frequent use may tire the discriminating reader.
Avoid clichés such as Food for thought, crowning glory, part and parcel, sum and substance, the vast majority, burning question, spare no efforts, desperate need,
discuss threadbare, teeming millions, untiring efforts, day in and day out, heart and soul, leave no stone unturned, etc. etc.
5. Use concrete (specific) words instead of abstract words
Eg. 22% profit instead of a sizeable profit
99.4% pure instead of very pure
6.Prefer active to passive voice
Eg. The auditor inspected the books instead of The books were inspected by the auditor
7.Select words for precise communication
Understand the difference in the shades of meaning conveyed by different words eg between weary tired exhausted or between suggest tell inform
8.Bring life to the writing by using strong vigorous words
Eg. Use “boom” Instead of “period of business prosperity”
9. Use correct idiom
Eg. in search of instead of in search for
comply with instead of comply to
10.Avoid sexist words
As far as possible, avoid use of words that suggest male dominance.
Eg. use of the masculine pronouns ‘he’, ‘his’, ‘him’ and words such as chairman, salesman, businessman etc.
Use of masculine pronouns can be avoided by any of the three methods
Method 1 Changing the sentence construction as shown below
“If a customer pays promptly, he is placed on our preferred list” can be rewritten as “A customer who pays promptly is placed on our preferred list.”
Method 2 Making the reference plural and using the unsexist plural pronouns ‘they’, ‘them’ or ‘their’. Eg. “If customers pay promptly they are placed on our preferred list”
Method 3 Substituting neutral expressions Eg. “If a customer pays promptly he/she is placed on our preferred list”
1.USE SHORT SENTENCES
Length of a sentence is related to sentence difficulty. The longer a sentence the harder it is to understand it. Writing shorter sentences involves two techniques:
- Limiting sentence content
Mentally select the thought units and make separate sentences out of most
- Economizing on words
This can be done by avoiding the use of cluttering phrases
Eg. Using if instead of in the event of or even though instead of in spite of the fact that
- Avoiding roundabout construction
Eg. Using The department budget decreases each year Instead of The department budget can be observed to be decreasing each year
2.DETERMINE WHERE EMPHASIS SHOULD BE GIVEN
Short sentences give more emphasis than long sentences
3.GIVE UNITY TO SENTENCES
All parts of a sentence must combine to form one clear thought.
Build the paragraph around a single topic or idea
Keep the paragraph short – an average of 8 or 9 lines
Build the paragraph around a single topic or idea
Make effective use of topic sentences – these are sentences that expresses the main idea in the paragraph
3.5 Writing Process
Every writer follows his or her own writing process. Often the process is a routine that comes naturally and is not a step-by-step guide to which writers refer. Being conscious of your own writing process is especially helpful when you find yourself struggling with a particularly tricky piece. Here are five steps towards creating or identifying your personal writing process.
You’re ready to start writing. So why has that blank page been staring back at you for the past hour? Prewriting identifies everything you need to do before you sit down to start your rough draft.
- Find Your Idea
Ideas are all around you. You might draw inspiration from a routine, an everyday situation or a childhood memory. Alternatively, keep a notebook specifically devoted to catching your ideas as they come to you. Your own imagination is the only limit to finding your source of inspiration.
- Build On Your Idea
Two of the most popular methods of fleshing out your idea are free writing and brainstorming. Free writing means writing every idea that comes into your head. Do not stop to edit your mistakes, just let the ideas flow. Or, try brainstorming. If you’re on a computer, try a manual process first to help you visualize your narrative: write your idea in the center of the page and work outwards in all of the different directions you can take your story.
- Plan and Structure
Piecing the puzzle together comes next. It’s time to sort through your ideas and choose which ones you will use to form your story. Make sure you keep your notes even after your book is published – there may be the seeds for your next story as well.
Now you have your plan and you’re ready to start writing. Remember, this is your first rough draft. Forget about word count and grammar. Don’t worry if you stray off topic in places; even the greatest writers produce multiple drafts before they produce their finished manuscript. Think of this stage as a free writing exercise, just with more direction. Identify the best time and location to write and eliminate potential distractions. Make writing a regular part of your day.
Your story can change a great deal during this stage. When revising their work, many writers naturally adopt the A.R.R.R. approach:
Add: The average novel has between 60,000 and 100,000 words. Does your book have enough words to be considered a novel? Have you given your readers all the information they need to make sense of your story? If not, go back to your notebook that you kept for additional scenes and any additional details.
Rearrange: Consider the flow, pacing and sequencing of your story. Would the plot be better served if some of the events occur in a different order?
Remove: After making additions to your story, how is your word count now? Are your readers experiencing information overload? You may need to eliminate passages that don’t quite fit.
Replace: The most effective way to revise your work is to ask for a second opinion. Do you need more vivid details to help clarify your work? Is one scene contradicting another? Ask friends or fellow writers to take a look and give you feedback, and if something isn’t working rewrite it and replace it.
You have overhauled your story. It’s time to fine tune your manuscript line by line. Check for repetition, clarity, grammar, spelling and punctuation. Editing is an extremely detailed process and its best when performed by a professional. You can hire your own editor or utilized the editing services available through LifeRich Publishing. Nobody wants to read a book that is full of mistakes, and they certainly won’t buy a book that is riddled with them.
You now have a completed manuscript ready to publish.
3.6 THE LAYOUT OF A BUSINESS LETTER