2.1 Intrapersonal communication

  • Intrapersonal communication takes place within a single person, often for the purpose of clarifying ideas or analyzing a situation AND to reflect upon or appreciate something.
Aspects of intrapersonal communication are
  • Self concept
  • Perception
  • Expectation
  • Motivation
  • Self-concept is the basis for intrapersonal communication, because it determines how a persona sees him/herself and is oriented toward others.
  • The term self-concept is a general term used to refer to how someone thinks about or perceives themselves.
  • The self concept is how we think about and evaluate ourselves. To be aware of oneself is to have a concept of oneself
  • Perception is the organization, identification and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. All perception involves signals in the nervous system, which in turn result from physical stimulation of the sense organs.
  • Expectations are future-oriented messages dealing with long-term roles, sometimes called life scripts. These sometimes are projections of learned relationships within the family or society.

2.1.1 TYPES OF INTRAPESONAL COMMUNICATION

1. Internal discourse
2. solo vocal communication
3. solo written communication.
  • Internal discourse involves thinking, concentration and analysis. Psychologists include both daydreaming and nocturnal dreaming in this category. Example Prayer and meditation
  • Solo vocal communication includes speaking aloud to oneself. This may be done to clarify thinking, to rehearse a message intended for others, or simply to let off steam. Example: Talking to yourself as you complain about your boss.
  • Solo written communication deals with writing not intended for others. Example: An entry in a diary or personal journal

2.2 Interpersonal communication

  • Interpersonal communication is the process that we use to communicate our ideas, thoughts, and feelings to another person.
  • Our interpersonal communication skills are learned behaviours that can be improved through knowledge, practice, feedback and reflection.
Intrapersonal Communication
  • Intrapersonal communication could be called our inner monologue. When we sit down to think of ways to solve a problem, we’re communicating interpersonally. Even during those moments of quiet reflection about ourselves, our goals in life, our beliefs, values and expectations, we are communicating with ourselves. Intrapersonal communication also includes dreams, fantasies, talking out loud to yourself and writing, such as in a journal.
Interpersonal Communication
  • Interpersonal communication takes place between at least two people. A conversation over a candlelit dinner, a phone call and this article are all considered interpersonal communication. One person sends a message, either by talking or writing, or even with body language, and at least one other person receives that message. Effective interpersonal communication depends on the messenger’s ability to convey their exact meaning without ambiguity.

2.3 Group Communication

  • Meetings
  • Public Speech
  • Negotiations
  • Debates
  • Group Discussions

2.4 Mass communication

  • Communication through mass media like books , journals , TV , newspapers etc..
Large reach
      This communication reach audience scattered over a wide geographical area.
Impersonality
     Largely impersonal as the participants are unknown to each other.
Presence of a gatekeeper
     Mass communication needs additional persons , institutions to convey message from sender to receiver.

2.5 NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION

  • Non-verbal means not involving words or speech.
  • Thus, non-verbal communication refers to the wordless
  • messages received through gestures,signs,body movements, facial expressions
  • We can define non – verbal communication in several ways.
  • It is  the transmission of messages by some medium other than words.
  • It is the communication that uses non – linguistic means to convey the message.

2.5.1 Components of Non-verbal communication

  • Gestures
  • Facial expressions
  • Body language/Kinesics
  • Eye contact
  • Physical appearance
Gestures
  • Gestures are actions. In other words, the term refers to the movement of the parts of the body to express or elaborate some messages.
Facial Expressions
  • The face can be used to Communicate emotional meaning more accurately than any other medium in Inter-personal communication. Facial expressions tell the attitudes of the communicator. Researchers have  discovered that certain facial areas reveal our emotional State better than others.
Body language/Kinesics
  • Kinesics can be defined as the non-verbal behaviour related to movement, either of any part of the body, or the body as a whole. It is also the anthropological term for body language. It includes facial expressions, postures and gestures.
Eye contact
  • Eye contact conveys a sense of  sincerity. It establishes a  connection between persons. Lack of eye contact may be seen as rudeness, nervousness, or dishonesty.  Eye contact norms are culturally determined. It influences interaction.
Physical appearance
  • Physical appearance is a major factor used to judge a person Simply because the first  impression of a person is based on his/her appearance. People can change their  appearance by changing their clothing styles, hairstyles and other accessories.

2.6 Conversation

Talk between two or more people in which thoughts, feelings, and ideas are expressed, questions are asked and answered, or news and information is exchanged

2.7 Art of Condensation

  • The Art of Condensation is a process to make any piece of writing precise by omitting unnecessary elements. This art of condensation in creative writing is synonymous with précis writing.
According to Collin’s Dictionary:
  • “To make a précis of a given passage is to extract its main points and express them clearly”.
According to Oxford’s Dictionary:
  • “A concise or abridged statement, a summary, or abstract.”
In fact a précis or the Art of Condensation is just a straight forward statement of the bare-facts without any unnecessary trimming. That means it must be able to ‘stand alone’ and make a complete sense.

2.7.1 Characteristics of Art of Condensation

We should remember 5 Cs as characteristics of Art of Condensation.
1.Completeness

2.Compactness

3.Conciseness

4.Clarity

5.Coherence

1. Completeness: The précis must have the essential contents of the original passage without omitting any important fact.
 
2. Compactness: All the ideas we produced from the original document should form compactness. The words and sentences should convey a sense of unity with each other.
 
3. Conciseness: Brevity is the essence of précis. It is achieved by avoiding repetitions and omitting ornamental phrases etc. but brevity should not be achieved at the cost of clarity. There should be economy of words but not of ideas.
 
4. Clarity: The précis should have clarity of expressions. This can be achieved by getting rid of redundancy. It should be in the language which could be understood by everyone.
 
5. Coherence: The main theme should run through the sentences like the string of a necklace. All the sentences and ideas in a précis should follow one after other in an unbreakable chain. They should follow a natural order of development. One sentence should suggest the next and so on. Above all the précis should not look like a collection of disjointed sentences, but a well connected one.

2.7.2 Art of Condensation includes

  • Paraphrasing
  • Summary
  • Précis
  • Abstract
  • Synopsis
  • Executive summary
Summary
  • Summaries are a brief explanation of a story or piece of writing. You will need to include only the main idea and supporting facts. You can include some other things, but do not re-write the story.
Abstract
  • A summary of the contents of a book, article, or speech.
Synopsis
  • A synopsis is a brief summary of the major points of a subject or written work or story, either as prose or as a table; an abridgment or condensation of a work.
  • a brief or condensed statement giving a general view of some subject.
  • a compendium of heads or short paragraphs giving a view of the whole.
  • a brief summary of the plot of a novel, motion picture, play, etc.
Paraphrasing
  • express the meaning of (something written or spoken) using different words, especially to achieve greater clarity.

2.7.3 STEPS OF PRÉCIS WRITING

  • Identify the Reader and Purpose of Précis: Determine how formal the précis could be. Required details should be included.
  • Read the Original Document: A thorough and slow reading of paragraph is required.
  • Underline the Key Idea and Concepts: Underline the main points.
  • Write a Suitable, Explanatory, Title: it should sums up the passage.
  • Write a Note From Summary: It’s better to sum up the paragraph in points. Omit irrelevant information.
  • Write the Précis: Frame summarized points into coherent sentences.
  • Review and Edit: compare with original document.

2.8 Visual communication

Visual communication is communication through a visual aid and is described as the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be read or looked upon.
It includes:

  • Signs,
  • Typography,
  • Drawing,
  • graphic design,
  • illustration,
  • Industrial Design,
  • Advertising,
  • Animation colour and Electronic resources.

2.8.1 Types of Visual Aids

  • Objects
  • Models
  • Graphs
  • Maps
  • Photographs
  • Tables
  • Drawings, Diagrams
  • Posters
  • Handouts
  • Chalkboard or whiteboard
  • Video Excerpts
  • Computer Assisted Presentation
  • Projection Equipments

2.9 Designing and delivering oral presentations

Debates, Negotiations, Meetings, Public Speech, Group Discussions, ppt Presentations, Seminars & Conferences
Three Phases of Oral Communication include:

  • Planning
  • Writing
  • Completing

Points to Consider:
Topic, Audience, Situation, venue, Time, aids, Handling challenges, Possible questions (Q&A)

2.9.1 Effective Oral Presentations

  • Display Your Skills
  • Think on Your Feet
  • Grasp Complex Issues
  • Handle Challenges

Oral presentations offer you important opportunities to put all your communication skills on display—not only in research, planning, writing, and visual design, but also in interpersonal and nonverbal communication. Oral presentations can also provide you with a chance to demonstrate your ability to think on your feet, grasp complex issues, and handle challenging situations—all attributes that executives look for when searching for talented employees to promote within the organization.

2.10 Meetings

There are good meetings and there are bad meetings. Bad meetings drone on forever, you never seem to get to the point, and you leave wondering why you were even present. Effective ones leave you energized and feeling that you’ve really accomplished something.
So what makes a meeting effective? This really boils down to three things:
  • They achieve the meeting’s objective.
  • They take up a minimum amount of time.
  • They leave participants feeling that a sensible process has been followed.

1. Once you have an agenda prepared, you need to circulate it to the participants and get their feedback and input. Running a meeting is not a dictatorial role: You have to be participative right from the start.
2. Perhaps there is something important that a team member has to add. Maybe you have allotted too much, or too little, time for a particular item. There may even be some points you’ve included that have been settled already and can be taken off the list for discussion.

2.10.1 Components of a Business Meeting

  • Notice
  • Agenda
  • Minutes

2.10.2 Notice of a Meeting

  • When a meeting is to be convened, a notice is required to be sent to all who are to attend it.

It should satisfy these conditions:
1. It should be under proper authority
2. It should state the name of the organisation
3. It should state the day, date, time, and place. Also, sometimes, how to reach the place
4. It should be well in advance. Some require seven days’ notice, some 48 hours’
5. It should state the purpose and, if possible, the agenda

6. It should carry the date of circulation and convener’s/secretary’s signature
7. It should go to all persons required at the meet
8. It should mention the TA/DA etc. payable and the arrangements for this
9. In practice, it is necessary to ensure that the notice has reached in time.

2.10.3 Agenda

  • As stated earlier, an agenda is the list of items to be considered at a meeting. It is also called business or order of business. It comes from the Latin word agendum (singular) which means ‘a thing to be done.’ But agenda (the Latin plural) is used as a singular noun.
  • It is the route map of the meeting. The specimen notices above already contain a hint of how it is written. The agenda may be a part of the notice or may be attached as an annexure. The convenor/secretary prepares it in consultation with the chairperson and gets his approval.
  • The items of agenda should cover all that is necessary to be considered at that time. Meetings take time and effort to arrange; hence the agenda has to be well thought out.

he items may be devised from:
(a) Previous minutes
(b) Suggestions received
(c) Actions and events since last meeting
(d) Correspondence of the organisation.

2.10.4 Minutes of the Meeting

The minutes of a meeting are the record of the discussions/decisions therein. They have an official status; they are useful in law, and in some cases required by law to be written. Minutes are final when they are approved by the members of the group to which they relate, generally in the next meeting, and signed by the chairperson.
the body of the minute’s records.
(a) The motions and amendments thereto
(b) The proposer and seconded of motions
(c) The details of voting, if any
(d) Recommendations
(e) Decisions/ resolutions
(f) Tasks assigned to individuals, sub-committees

The overall minutes should give:
1. The name of the organisation/ unit
2. Day, date, time and place
3. Number in order (e.g. 33rd meeting of…)
4. Names of chairperson and secretary
5. Names of members present
6. Names of the absent

7. Attendees by special invitation, e.g. auditor, caterer, etc.
8. Record of the transactions (on the guidelines given above)
9. Signature of secretary and, after approval, that of the chairman.